by Robin Linus and Egor Homakov


SecureBookmarks is a scheme for security critical web apps. A web app in a bookmarked Data URL in combination with subresource integrity protects users’ secret data even if the server is compromised. Here’s a Bitcoin demo app.


Let’s say you want to run some critical app on your phone. For example:

  • sign a cryptocurrency transaction
  • encrypt/decrypt a private message
  • calculate a 6 digit one-time-password
  • run secure apps in a local network without SSL certificates
  • or just store extremely private to-do list

and do all that in a scalable fashion that any user can verify. What would you do? Bad news is it wasn’t possible at scale, until now.

Traditional Solutions Do Not Work

App Store / Play Store

Any app served in centralized stores could be malicious. There is no way to verify if they are compiled correctly, even when the sources are public. From app developer to end user there is a long chain of trusted parties and all of them could compromise the code.

Self Install

The next idea is to review the code locally and compile it yourself. For iOS you will need Testflight and a $99/year account ( For Android, you can install a self compiled .apk. These options are very cumbersome and don’t scale to large user bases.

Using the browser

Alright, if we can’t use the stores because they are centralized and the apps cannot be reviewed, let’s use the browser. A web app can be built so that it is easy to review. Still, of course, a centralized server would jeopardize source integrity but there is a better solution.

SecureBookmarks with Data URLs

Installing a secure app is possible with Data URLs and subresource integrity. Here’s an example:

data:text/html,<script src= integrity=sha256-cb4FM5gL20dRVo8Fs0ogQ/A5EiARDJlOSySpIrosOVM crossorigin></script>

This Data URL downloads the JavaScript at and before execution it verifies that the source’s hash equals cb4FM5gL20dRVo8Fs0ogQ/A5EiARDJlOSySpIrosOVM. So even if an attacker compromises the server there is no way to infect users with malicious code.

Usability-wise, a bookmarked web app can feel just like a native app thanks to browser features such as “add to home screen” and standalone mode.

Demo Apps

Here is a most simple example. Copy and paste it into your browser’s address bar:


(Removed white spaces bc of an iOS glitch when pasting URLs).

There are two demo apps:


You can find the source code on Github

Bitcoin Demo App Screenshots

Screenshot 1 Screenshot 2 Screenshot 3 Screenshot 4 Screenshot 5